Lots of efforts in one or other way are in progress for water harvesting. If we think for a while, We can find that it’s not a recent technique rather from long back we are trying this in one or other way. Are we significantly getting success in Water harvesting? . If it is really a success then till date we could have been one step ahead to an effective water use efficiency .There are 2 important steps in Water management in Watershed projects
2. Water use efficiency
In fact Water harvesting and Water use efficiency are 2 sides of a coin .The coin will have its value if the water is just not harvested but it is also being used efficiently. So, we have to realize the importance of one step ahead of Water harvesting i.e Water use efficiency
In present situation we should have been in a position to concentrate more on water use efficiency. The focus is still concerned to water harvesting . Of course, the water harvesting is a regular process and has to be done in each monsoon season.
Why there is need to concentrate more on water use efficiency?
The efficiency can be increase if we reduce the Water use as per our requirements. To enhance the water use efficiency it is important to focus on water conveyance efficiency i.e Water delivered from the source to Water entering main field.
Lacunae in achieving water use efficiency
1.A proper understanding of actual crop water need is one of the important barrier to efficient Water use efficiency
2.The farmers focus more on irrigating the land instead of focusing on irrigating their crops
3.Quite often earthen type irrigation channel are constructed for conveying water to field. This way there is huge seepage losses .Under high water pressure , the earthen type irrigation channel gets break down . So, the water is not being efficiently utilized. More over the Process is too long & time consuming.
What is required:-
2 things are required :
a) Proper Water collection in Water harvesting structures
b) Efficient Water movement from Source to field
Practices to be adopted for efficient water use:-
Some common practices that can be practiced for efficient water use of stored water
1.Cemented irrigation channel
Cemented irrigation channel in place of earthen based irrigation channel is effective in reducing the seepage losses
and better reach of water from source to field .
2.Land leveling-It will help in uniform distribution of water in the field and this will reduce the wastage of water . Hence will contribute to better water use efficiency
Mulching provide a cover on the land. The cover so formed on the land helps in reducing the water loss from the land
4.Use of micro irrigation – Drip and sprinkler are to important micro irrigation practices that is must for enhancing water use efficiency
Field bunding is an important practice that not only helps in demarcating the lands but also helps to keep the field water in field .The bunds so raised will also help in going for agro forestry for getting additional income
So, time has come when focus has to be given on Water use efficiency along with regular rain Water harvesting. This way the sustainability in Watershed Management can be reached .