Water harvesting basically refers to collection and storage of rain water. It helps in enhancing the water use efficiency with proper water harvesting structure , the availability of water can be ensured .The collected and stored water can utilized in lean season when there is shortage of water . The stored water is utilized for drinking , irrigation and other house hold activities . Water harvesting structure plays a vital role in irrigation. In dry season , the supplemental irrigation can be provided through the stored water. Apart from this the water harvesting structure aimed at harvesting surface and ground water to prevent the losses through evaporation and seepage. the structure like dug out ponds , trenches are helpful in ground water recharge . Altogether, the water harvesting structure are constructed for conservation and effective utilization of the limited water.
Various aspects of Water Harvesting Structure (WHS)
- Farm ponds – are used for surface storage for multipurpose use . it is also use for augmentation of ground water.
- Percolation tanks at appropriate sites based on geological consideration
- Roof water harvesting tank-to harvest rain water using roof as catchment
- Wells artificial recharge through
- Surface water bodies– control of evaporation
- embankments -construction of over streams with low perennial flow
- Subsurface dams to arrest base flow of ground water
- Field bunds to prevent the water from moving out of field thereby to maintain adequate moisture
- Cemented Irrigation channels to prevent seepage losses in appropriate situations
- Mechanical and chemical treatment to enhance the runoff through in catchment area
Purpose of Water harvesting structure
- Storing surface run off so as to be used subsequently for supplemental irrigation , domestic use and for livestock/aquaculture.
- Storing surface run off for ground water recharge.