Watershed management manages the soil and water on priority basis. It lays its emphasis on soil and water conservation. For agriculture production and its sustainability soil and water are the basic requirements.Water conservation through various water harvesting structure like water harvesting tank, pond etc ensures the availability of water to be used in agriculture land. It is important especially in rainfed areas where managing water is a big challenge.
Watershed management ensures the availability of water even in times when there is no rain fall. It also imparts knowledge and understanding for water use efficiency. In rainfed areas, the life saving irrigation is important .Thus the judicious use of collected water is again a big challenge of watershed in rainfed areas.
Water conveyance efficiency (i.e. efficiency of water conveyed in irrigation channels) and water application efficiency (i.e. efficiency of water delivered to the field) are the two irrigation water related efficiencies that ensure efficient use of water by the plants. Hence, water use efficiency has to be enhanced for sustainable agriculture production.
Soil erosion is one of the main factors depleting the productive top soil. Soil conservation measures under watershed management provide the better solution. The soil biodiversity with presence of diverse microorganisms like fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, Arthropods, Nematodes, protozoa and earthworm etc. are significant for soil health. Soil structure can be improved by incorporation of organic material .The decomposition of plant and animal residues break down it in to organic matter. Further decomposition gives rise to humus in the soil. That’s how the good soil fertility and soil productivity is ensured through watershed management.
Hence watershed management addresses the soil & water as an important and deciding factor to provide solution for sustainable crop production in watershed.