Threshing and winnowing
Threshing and winnowing are important post harvest operation in agriculture crops. The effectiveness of Threshing operations decides the grain recovery. Beating the grain against the threshing flour, facilitating circular walk by animals on the grain are some of the indigenous methods followed in threshing. However, with the introduction of combine harvester, all 3 operation i.e harvesting. Threshing and winnowing is done by the machines.
Threshing is the process in which the outer covering of grain i.e husk is loosened/removed from the grain. In villages the threshing is done by beating the grain against the threshing flour. The groups of woman in open spaces do threshing in home by collecting the harvested produce and later on loosening the husk from the grain by beating action against the flour.
Winnowing is done through a process in which the wind velocity blown away the lighter chaff and leaves the grains to move down under gravity to get collected down. This indigenous way of winnowing is still in use to facilitate separation of chaff and grain.
The way forward has to be looked by developing and introducing farmer’s feasible farm machineries suitable for hills to execute post production agricultural operations. That’s how the efficiency of agriculture operation can be enhanced in hills.